Boots No 8?
Is Boots No 7 outdated by recent research, or will it be called Reza Kafi No 1?
In his Essays, 16th century Michel de Montaigne brings up women’s example while talking about stoic denial of pain and suffering, quoting even Tibull:
“Who has not heard at Paris of her that caused her face to be flayed only for the fresher complexion of a new skin? There are who have drawn good and sound teeth to make their voices more soft and sweet, or to place the other teeth in better order. How many examples of the contempt of pain have we in that sex? What can they not do, what do they fear to do, for never so little hope of an addition to their beauty?
“Vallere queis cura est albos a stirpe capillos,
Et faciem, dempta pelle, referre novam.”
[“Who carefully pluck out their grey hairs by the roots, and renew
their faces by peeling off the old skin.”—Tibullus, i. 8, 45.]I have seen some of them swallow sand, ashes, and do their utmost to destroy their stomachs to get pale complexions. To make a fine Spanish body, what racks will they not endure of girding and bracing, till they have notches in their sides cut into the very quick, and sometimes to death?”
Now all these seem to be duly obsolete recipes.
Applying vitamin A to the skin appears to improve the wrinkles associated with natural aging and may help to promote the production of skin-building compounds, according to a new report.
The wrinkles and brown spots associated with aging appear first and most prominently on skin exposed to the sun, according to background information in the article. “Human skin not exposed to the sun also ages but less dramatically,” the authors write. “In intrinsic, natural or chronological aging, skin loses its youthful appearance by becoming thinner, laxer and more finely wrinkled. These changes are readily appreciated by inspecting the upper inner arm.” Thinner skin results from a reduced production of the protein collagen and may slow wound healing, presenting a public health issue. “Safe and effective therapies to reverse the atrophy of natural skin aging do not exist currently,” the authors note.
Reza Kafi, M.D., then of the University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, and now of Stanford Medical School, Palo Alto, Calif., and colleagues assessed the effectiveness of vitamin A (retinol) lotion in 36 elderly individuals (average age 87 years). Researchers applied a lotion containing 0.4 percent retinol to participants’ right or left upper inner arms, and lotion with no retinol to the other arm, up to three times a week for 24 weeks. Wrinkles, roughness and overall severity of aging were each graded on a scale from zero (none) to nine (severe) before treatment and two, four, eight, 16 and 24 weeks after beginning treatment. In addition, 4-millimeter biopsy specimens of skin were taken from both arms at the beginning and end of the 24-week treatment period.
A total of 23 individuals completed the full study and 13 withdrew from the study prior to completion. When the researchers included the individuals who had dropped out of the study by assuming their skin did not change after their last measurement, wrinkles, roughness and overall aging severity were all significantly reduced in the retinol-treated arm compared with the control arm. The skin biopsies revealed that the retinol increased the production of glycosaminoglycan and procollagen, structural components of the skin.
“Topical retinol improves fine wrinkles associated with natural aging,” the authors conclude. “Significant induction of glycosaminoglycan, which is known to retain substantial water, and increased collagen production are most likely responsible for wrinkle effacement [reduction]. With greater skin matrix synthesis [production of compounds that form new skin], retinol-treated aged skin is more likely to withstand skin injury and ulcer formation along with improved appearance.”
Arch Dermatol. 2007 May;143(5):606-12.Improvement of naturally aged skin with vitamin a (retinol).Kafi R, Kwak HS, Schumacher WE, Cho S, Hanft VN, Hamilton TA, King AL, Neal JD, Varani J, Fisher GJ, Voorhees JJ, Kang S.
University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Dermatology, 1910 Taubman Center, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. email@example.com.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical retinol (vitamin A) in improving the clinical signs of naturally aged skin. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, left and right arm comparison study. SETTING: Academic referral center. Patients The study population comprised 36 elderly subjects (mean age, 87 years), residing in 2 senior citizen facilities. Intervention Topical 0.4% retinol lotion or its vehicle was applied at each visit by study personnel to either the right or the left arm, up to 3 times a week for 24 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical assessment using a semiquantitative scale (0, none; 9, most severe) and biochemical measurements from skin biopsy specimens obtained from treated areas. RESULTS: After 24 weeks, an intent-to-treat analysis using the last-observation-carried-forward method revealed that there were significant differences between retinol-treated and vehicle-treated skin for changes in fine wrinkling scores (-1.64 [95% CI, -2.06 to -1.22] vs -0.08 [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.01]; P