vegetable compound against leukemia
Rutinosides, the most common type of a chemical widely available in fruits, vegetables, and red wine, is known for its anti-cancer and anti-oxidant effect upon cells, but the details of how it works at the cellular level have been unclear — until now.
Xiao-Ming Yin and colleagues studied these effects on cultured cells from leukemia and lymphoma patients. They discovered that cyanidin-3-rutinoside extracted and purified from the black raspberry increased the levels of molecules well-known for killing cells. These molecules, called reactive oxygen species, destroyed the cancer cells while sparing the surrounding healthy blood cells. This yields hope to develop new types of anti-cancer drugs.
J Biol Chem. 2007 May 4;282(18):13468-76. Epub 2007 Mar 14. Links
Cyanidin-3-rutinoside, a Natural Polyphenol Antioxidant, Selectively Kills Leukemic Cells by Induction of Oxidative Stress.Feng R, Ni HM, Wang SY, Tourkova IL, Shurin MR, Harada H, Yin XM.
Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261.
Anthocyanins are a group of naturally occurring phenolic compounds widely available in fruits and vegetables in human diets. They have broad biological activities including anti-mutagenesis and anticarcinogenesis, which are generally attributed to their antioxidant activities. We studied the effects and the mechanisms of the most common type of anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, in several leukemia and lymphoma cell lines. We found that cyanidin-3-rutinoside extracted and purified from the black raspberry cultivar Jewel induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Paradoxically, this compound induced the accumulation of peroxides, which are involved in the induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. In addition, cyanidin-3-rutinoside treatment resulted in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of p38 MAPK and JNK, which contributed to cell death by activating the mitochondrial pathway mediated by Bim. Down-regulation of Bim or overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-x(L) considerably blocked apoptosis. Notably, cyanidin-3-rutinoside treatment did not lead to increased ROS accumulation in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and had no cytotoxic effects on these cells. These results indicate that cyanidin-3-rutinoside has the potential to be used in leukemia therapy with the advantages of being widely available and selective against tumors.
PMID: 17360708 [PubMed – in process]